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合同法知识点 | 反欺诈法(二)

2022-11-25 22:50:59 田全礼 44


Statute of Frauds







“反欺诈法”(Statute of Frauds)是一项法律原则,它要求某些类型的合同应以书面形式签订,并由协议双方签署。各州的反欺诈法是不同的,但都发挥着保护合同双方免受欺骗性的行为之害的作用。按照反欺诈法撰写的合同必须由被强制执行合同的一方签署。

“反欺诈法”(Statute of Frauds)是美国合同法中的一个重要法律原则,也是LEC考试的一个常考知识点。本期,我们来详细了解:受反欺诈法规制的合同类型、反欺诈法的例外。


上期内容回顾:反欺诈法的的定义、发展历史和目的
合同法知识点 | 反欺诈法(一)




受反欺诈法规制的合同类型

尽管美国的反欺诈法因州而异,但仍有一些类型的合同在各州均适用。许多法律专业人士使用助记符“MY LEGS”(“我的双腿”)来进行记忆。


M = Marriage – includes any promises made in consideration of marriage, including gifts given in consideration of marriage, such as an engagement ring.

Y = Year – any agreement that cannot be completed or fulfilled within one year must be made in writing. For instance, an agreement to pay back a personal loan in five years cannot be completed in one year.

L = Land – the sale or other transfer of real property must be made in writing. This does not apply to a lease, unless it falls under the Year requirement.

E = Executors – promises to pay an estate’s debt from the personal funds of the executor must be put in writing. Promises to pay such debt from the funds of the estate are not subject to the Statute of Frauds.

G = Goods – the sale of goods worth $500 or more must be made in writing. This gets tricky when dealing with a modified contract for sale of goods, however. In general, if the contract is modified to a value of less than the $500, is not subject to the Statute of Frauds. A modification raising the value over the $500 limit is required to be placed in writing.

S = Suretyship – a contract in which one person promises to pay the debt of another person is considered a “surety,” and is subject to the Statute of Frauds.


M = 婚姻:包括以婚姻为约因做出的任何承诺,包括以婚姻为约因赠送的礼物,如订婚戒指。

Y = 年: 无法在一年之内完成的任何协议必须采用书面形式签订。例如,五年内偿还个人贷款的协议无法在一年内完成。

L = 土地: 不动产买卖或其他转让必须采用书面形式签订。这不适用于租赁,除非租赁属于Y要求。

E = 遗嘱执行人: 从遗嘱执行人的个人资金支付遗产债务的承诺必须以书面形式表达。从遗产资金中支付上述债务的承诺不受反欺诈法的约束。

G = 商品: 价值500美元或以上的商品销售必须采用书面形式签订。不过,当涉及变更的商品销售合同,情况会变得难处理。总的来说,如果合同修改至价值低于500美元,则不再受反欺诈法的约束。合同变更至价值超过500美元的限额,则须以书面形式订立。

S = 担保: 合同中一人承诺为他人清偿债务,此类合同被视为一种“担保”,受反欺诈法约束。



按照反欺诈法的规定,对具有约束力的协议的要求即使当以书面形式达成协议时,也必须在文件中包含相关重要要素,以使合同被视为有效和具有约束力。此类协议必须:

Be in written form, though it does not need to be written in any type of formal language

Identify the subject of the contract in an easily understood manner

Spell out the essential terms of the agreement, including the exact nature of the goods or services, and the price or other consideration agreed upon

Include the signatures of both parties, or at a minimum, the signature of the party that is being charged for the goods or services.


  • 采用书面形式,即使它不必以任何类型的正式语言撰写。

  • 以易于理解的方式确定合同的标的

  • 详细说明协议的基本条款,包括商品或服务的确切性质以及双方商定的价格或其他约因。

  • 包括双方的签名,或至少包括因获得商品或服务而被收取价款一方的签名。



反欺诈法的例外

反欺诈法规则的例外情形包括:特制商品、商家之间的书面凭证、法庭承认、部分履行以及允诺禁反言原则 。


Specially Manufactured Goods(特制商品) – goods that were clearly custom-made for an order may not be subject to the Statute of Frauds.

明显地为订单而定制的商品不得受反欺诈法的约束。


Written Confirmation between Merchants(商家之间的书面凭证) – a written confirmation of an agreement between two or more merchants, not consumers, is often sufficient proof of an agreement under the Statute of Frauds. Merchants commonly make verbal agreements between them, then follow up with written invoices. This customary manner of doing business is recognized under the law. 

两个或多个商家(不是消费者)之间协议的书面凭证,通常足以证明是根据“反欺诈法”达成的协议。商家通常会在他们之间达成口头协议,然后以书面发票跟进。这种商业经营的习惯做法,法律是认可的。


Admission in Court(法庭承认) – the party against whom the agreement is being enforced can admit in court that there was, in fact, a valid oral agreement. 

被强制执行协议的一方可以在法庭承认,事实上,存在有效的口头协议。 


Partial Performance(部分履行) – in the event the validity of an oral agreement is at question, the fact that one party has already performed his responsibilities under the agreement, may serve to confirm that a contract did exist. 

如果口头协议的有效性受到质疑,则一方已经履行协议项下的职责的事实可以起到证明合同确实存在的作用。


Promissory Estoppel(允诺禁止反言原则 ) – a principle of “fundamental fairness” intended to right a substantial injustice. For instance, Sally promises to pay Bob $1,000 to fix her car. Bob goes out and buys $700 in parts and starts the repair job. A week later, Sally just wants her car back, and claims there was no agreement for payment. This is so unfair as to need to be fixed by the court.

一项“基本公平”的原则,旨在纠正实质性的不公平。例如,萨莉(Sally)承诺向鲍勃(Bob)支付1000美元来修理她的汽车。鲍勃(Bob)外购700美元的配件开始修理工作。一周以后,萨莉(Sally)只是想提回自己的汽车,声称没有付款协议。这样做太不公平,只得诉诸法庭解决。


LEC真题演练

A seller owns a 400-acre of land with 5,000 feet of frontage on a country highway.

The seller and a buyer entered onto a written agreement for the sale of a portion of the tract identified only as “a parcel of land, containing not less than 100 acres and having not less than 1,000 feet of frontage on the country highway, whose exact location and dimensions are to be determined by the partied hereto, at a price of $8,000 per acre. ”

Shortly after the execution of the agreement, the parties met to stake out the parcel of land to be sold, but they could not agree. The disagreement intensified, and the seller repudiated the contract.

The buyer has sued the seller for specific performance. The seller has asserted all available defenses. 

Is the buyer entitled to specific performance of the contract?

A. No, because a contract for the sale of real property that requires further agreement on an essential element cannot be specifically enforced.

B. No, because the purchase price was not fixed by, nor determinable under, the contract terms.

C. Yes, because the contract bound the parties to act in good faith and to agree upon the specific land to be conveyed.

D. Yes, because the equity powers of the court enable the court to appoint a master, or to take other appropriate action, to identify the and to be conveyed.


题干内容:

卖家有一块400英亩的土地,靠近乡村公路有5000英尺长。
卖方和买方签订了一份书面协议,出售该地块的一部分,只将其定义为“一块土地,占地不少于100英亩,沿乡村公路上有不少于1000英尺,其确切位置和尺寸由双方确定,价格为每英亩8000美元。”
协议签署后不久,双方就商议确定要出售的那块土地,但未能达成协议。随着双方分歧加剧,卖方拒绝履行合同。
于是,买方对卖方的特定履行行为提起诉讼。卖方提出所有可用的抗辩。
问题:买方是否有权(要求卖方)具体履行合同?(即,双方的土地合同是否有效?)

【参考答案见文末】

       





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真题演练答案及解析


参考答案:A
这里的合同涉及土地买卖,适用反欺诈法规则。
虽然买卖双方是以书面的形式签订合同,但是合同中的条款尚未明确双方买卖哪一块土地,即未对合同标的(subject matter)作出合理的说明[《合同法重述(第二次)》第131条(a)]。所以该合同不可实施,其内容还需双方进一步商定。


标签: 法平教育 LEC考试 反欺诈法 Statute of Fraud

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