M = Marriage – includes any promises made in consideration of marriage, including gifts given in consideration of marriage, such as an engagement ring.
Y = Year – any agreement that cannot be completed or fulfilled within one year must be made in writing. For instance, an agreement to pay back a personal loan in five years cannot be completed in one year.
L = Land – the sale or other transfer of real property must be made in writing. This does not apply to a lease, unless it falls under the Year requirement.
E = Executors – promises to pay an estate’s debt from the personal funds of the executor must be put in writing. Promises to pay such debt from the funds of the estate are not subject to the Statute of Frauds.
G = Goods – the sale of goods worth $500 or more must be made in writing. This gets tricky when dealing with a modified contract for sale of goods, however. In general, if the contract is modified to a value of less than the $500, is not subject to the Statute of Frauds. A modification raising the value over the $500 limit is required to be placed in writing.
S = Suretyship – a contract in which one person promises to pay the debt of another person is considered a “surety,” and is subject to the Statute of Frauds.
M = 婚姻：包括以婚姻为约因做出的任何承诺，包括以婚姻为约因赠送的礼物，如订婚戒指。
Y = 年： 无法在一年之内完成的任何协议必须采用书面形式签订。例如，五年内偿还个人贷款的协议无法在一年内完成。
L = 土地: 不动产买卖或其他转让必须采用书面形式签订。这不适用于租赁，除非租赁属于Y要求。
E = 遗嘱执行人: 从遗嘱执行人的个人资金支付遗产债务的承诺必须以书面形式表达。从遗产资金中支付上述债务的承诺不受反欺诈法的约束。
G = 商品: 价值500美元或以上的商品销售必须采用书面形式签订。不过，当涉及变更的商品销售合同，情况会变得难处理。总的来说，如果合同修改至价值低于500美元，则不再受反欺诈法的约束。合同变更至价值超过500美元的限额，则须以书面形式订立。
Be in written form, though it does not need to be written in any type of formal language
Identify the subject of the contract in an easily understood manner
Spell out the essential terms of the agreement, including the exact nature of the goods or services, and the price or other consideration agreed upon
Include the signatures of both parties, or at a minimum, the signature of the party that is being charged for the goods or services.
Specially Manufactured Goods（特制商品） – goods that were clearly custom-made for an order may not be subject to the Statute of Frauds.
Written Confirmation between Merchants（商家之间的书面凭证） – a written confirmation of an agreement between two or more merchants, not consumers, is often sufficient proof of an agreement under the Statute of Frauds. Merchants commonly make verbal agreements between them, then follow up with written invoices. This customary manner of doing business is recognized under the law.
Admission in Court（法庭承认） – the party against whom the agreement is being enforced can admit in court that there was, in fact, a valid oral agreement.
Partial Performance（部分履行） – in the event the validity of an oral agreement is at question, the fact that one party has already performed his responsibilities under the agreement, may serve to confirm that a contract did exist.
Promissory Estoppel（允诺禁止反言原则 ） – a principle of “fundamental fairness” intended to right a substantial injustice. For instance, Sally promises to pay Bob $1,000 to fix her car. Bob goes out and buys $700 in parts and starts the repair job. A week later, Sally just wants her car back, and claims there was no agreement for payment. This is so unfair as to need to be fixed by the court.
A seller owns a 400-acre of land with 5,000 feet of frontage on a country highway.
The seller and a buyer entered onto a written agreement for the sale of a portion of the tract identified only as “a parcel of land, containing not less than 100 acres and having not less than 1,000 feet of frontage on the country highway, whose exact location and dimensions are to be determined by the partied hereto, at a price of $8,000 per acre. ”
Shortly after the execution of the agreement, the parties met to stake out the parcel of land to be sold, but they could not agree. The disagreement intensified, and the seller repudiated the contract.
The buyer has sued the seller for specific performance. The seller has asserted all available defenses.
Is the buyer entitled to specific performance of the contract?
A. No, because a contract for the sale of real property that requires further agreement on an essential element cannot be specifically enforced.
B. No, because the purchase price was not fixed by, nor determinable under, the contract terms.
C. Yes, because the contract bound the parties to act in good faith and to agree upon the specific land to be conveyed.
D. Yes, because the equity powers of the court enable the court to appoint a master, or to take other appropriate action, to identify the and to be conveyed.